CENTER FOR MEDICINAL CANNABIS RESEARCH
University of California, San Diego
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)
Which is the Federal Government’s lead agency for scientific research on the diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine.
Harvard Medical School
Medical marijuana - Harvard Health Blog
National Institution of Drug Abuse
International Cannabinoid Research Society
Below are a just a few sites that I have sourced for my articles.
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2. Woodward C. 1937. Statement of Dr. William C Woodward, Legislative Council, American Medical Association, before the House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means, May 4, 1937. Dr. Woodard warned Congress that a prohibition "loses sight of the fact that future investigation may show that there are substantial medical uses for cannabis." http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/taxact/woodward.htm (accessed June 22, 2012).
3. Allentuck S, Bowman K. 1942. The Psychiatric Aspects of Marihuana Intoxication. American Journal of Psychiatry , 99(2).
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5. Institute of Medicine. 1982. Marijuana and Health: Report of a Study by a Committee of the Institute of Medicine, Division of Health Sciences Policy. National Research Council of the National Academy of Science.
6. Joy JE et al. 1999. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
7. Eddy M. 2010. Medical Marijuana: Review and Analysis of Federal and State Policies. Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33211.pdf (accessed June 22, 2012).
8. House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology. 1998. Cannabis: The Scientific and Medical Evidence. London, The Stationery Office, Parliament.
9. Russo E. 2007. The Solution to the Medicinal Cannabis Problem. Ethical Issues in Chronic Pain Management. Informa Healthcare. New York.
10. Mechoulam, R. Ed. 2005. Cannabinoids as Therapeutics. Milestones in Drug Therapy. Birkhäuser Basel.
11. Breivogel CS et al. 1998. The functional neuoanatomy of brain cannabinoid receptors. Neurobiol Dis; 5:417-431.
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13. Grant I, et al. 2010. Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California. Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research. Results of only five of the 14 studies conducted have been published to date, with a sixth completed but not yet published. Two showed that smoked cannabis was effective for hard-to-treat pain in HIV patients. One demonstrated that cannabis is effective for relieving neuropathic pain related to spinal cord injuries and other conditions. Another study found that higher doses of cannabis produced more relief in subjects who had pain induced via chemical heat. The remaining studies have not yet been completed. Studies appear in the peer-reviewed journals Neurology, Journal of Pain, Anesthesiology, Neuropsychopharmacology, and Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. www.cmcr.ucsd.edu/CMCR_REPORT_FEB17.pdf (accessed June 22, 2012).
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17. Musty R, Rossi R. 2001. Effects of smoked cannabis and oral D9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: a review of state clinical trials. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1:29-42.
18. Guzman M. 2003. Cannabinoids: potential anticancer agents. Nat Rev Cancer. 3(10): 745-55.
19. Machado. 2008. Therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J cancer Care Sep;17(5):431-43.
20. Gieringer D. 1996. Review of the Human Studies on the Medical Use of Marijuana. norml.org/medical/medmj.studies.shtml. See state studies at www.drugpolicy.org/
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23. British Medical Association. 1997. Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.
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25. Mimeault et al. 2003. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of anandamide in human prostatic cancer cell lines. Prostate 56: 1-12.
26. Ruiz et al. 1999. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in human prostate PC-3 cells via a receptor-independent mechanism. FEBS Letters 458: 400-404.
27. Pastos et al. 2005. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells: a possible role for cyclooxygenase-2. Gut 54: 1741-1750.
28. Casanova et al. 2003. Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors. Journal of Clinical Investigation 111: 43-50.
29. Powles et al. 2005. Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines. Blood 105: 1214-1221
30. Guzman et al. 2003. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids. The FASEB Journal 17: 529-531.
31. Jia et al. 2006. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells is regulated by translocation of Bad to mitochondria. Molecular Cancer Research 4: 549-562.
32. Preet et al. 2008. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo. Oncogene 10: 339-346.
33. Baek et al. 1998. Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research: 21: 353-356.
34. Carracedo et al. 2006. Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes. Cancer Research 66: 6748-6755.
35. Michalski et al. 2008. Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: correlation with survival and pain. International Journal of Cancer 122: 742-750.
36. Ramer, Hinz. 2008. Inhibition of cancer cell invasion by cannabinoids via increased cell expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100: 59-69.
37. Whyte et al. 2010. Cannabinoids inhibit cellular respiration of human oral cancer cells. Pharmacology 85: 328-335.
38. Leelawat et al. 2010. The dual effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on cholangiocarcinoma cells: anti-invasion activity at low concentration and apoptosis induction at high concentration. Cancer Investigation 28: 357-363.
39. Gustafsson et al. 2006. Cannabinoid receptor-mediated apoptosis induced by R(+)-methanandamide and Win55,212 is associated with ceramide accumulation and p38 activation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma. Molecular Pharmacology 70: 1612-1620.
40. Gustafsson et al. 2008. Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Growth inhibition by receptor activation. International Journal of Cancer 123: 1025-1033.
41. Liu et al. 2008. Enhancing the in vitro cytotoxic activity of Ä9-tetrahydrocannabinol in leukemic cells through a combinatorial approach. Leukemia and Lymphoma 49: 1800-1809.
42. Torres S, et al. 2011. THC and cannabidiol (CBD) remarkably reduced the growth of gliomas. A combination of cannabinoids and temozolomide (TMZ) produced a strong anti- tumoural action in both TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant tumours. Mol Cancer Ther ;10(1):90-103.
43. Galve-Roperph I, et al. 1998. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells. FEBS Letters 436: 6-10.
44. Guzman et al. 2000. Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Nature Medicine 6: 313-319.
45. Guzman et al. 2003. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids. The FASEB Journal 17: 529-531.
46. Alexander A, et al. 2009. Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Cancer. Cancer Lett Nov 18:285(1):6-12.
47. Olea-Herrero N et al. 2009. Inhibition of human tumour prostate PC-3 cell growth by cannabinoids R(+)-Methanandamide and JWH-015: Involvement of CB2. British Journal of Cancer. 101, 940-950.
48. Blazquez C et al (2003) Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids. FASEB J. 17(3): 529-31.
49. Sanchez C et al. 2001. Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. Cancer Res. 61(15): 5784-9.
50. Casanova ML et al. Op Cit.
51. Jacobsson SO, et al. 2001. Inhibition of rat C6 glioma cell proliferation by endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids. Relative involvement of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Dec;299(3): 951-9.
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54. Gonzalez S et al. 2000. Decreased cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA levels and immunoreactivity in pituitary hyperplasia induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens. Pituitary. 3(4):221-6.
55. Pagotto U et al. 2001. Normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas express cannabinoid receptor type 1 and synthesize endogenous cannabinoids: first evidence for a direct role of cannabinoids on hormone modulation at the human pituitary level. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 86(6):2687-96
56. Bifulco M et al. 2001. Control by the endogenous cannabinoid system of ras oncogene-dependent tumor growth. FASEB J. 15(14): 2745-7. Epub 2001 Oct 29.
57. Rubovitch V et al. 2002. The cannabinoid agonist DALN positively modulates L-type voltage-dependent calcium-channels in N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 101(1-2):93-102.
58. Ramer R. 2010. Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1. Biochem Pharmacol. Apr 1;79(7):955-66. Researchers found that the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) inhibited the invasion of both human cervical cancer and human lung cancer cells. By manipulating cannabidiol's upregulation of a tissue inhibitor, researchers may have revealed the mechanism of CBD's tumor-fighting effect. A further in vivo study demonstrated "a significant inhibition" of lung cancer metastasis in mice treated with CBD.
59. McAllister et al. 2007. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 6: 2921-2927.
60. Cafferal et al. 2010. Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition. Molecular Cancer 9: 196.
61. De Petrocellis et al. 1998. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 8375-8380.
62. Cafferal et al. 2006. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells through Cdc2 regulation. Cancer Research 66: 6615-6621.
63. Di Marzo et al. 2006. Anti-tumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Fast Forward 318: 1375-1387.
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65. Guzman et al. 2004. Cannabinoids inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor pathways in gliomas (PDF). Cancer Research 64: 5617-5623.
66. Massi P et al. 2004. Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoative cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. JPET 308:838-845.
67. Allister et al. 2005. Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Journal of Neurooncology 74: 31-40.
68. Marcu J et al (2010). Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 9(1):180-9
69. Stella N. 2010. Cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors in microglia, astrocytes, and astrocytomas. Glia. Jul;58(9):1017-30.
70. Guzman et al. 1998. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells. FEBS Letters 436: 6-10.
71. Massi et al. 2004. Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Fast Forward 308: 838-845.
72. Guzman et al. 2004. Cannabinoids inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor pathways in gliomas. Cancer Research 64: 5617-5623.
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